Thursday, June 22, 2017

Classic Trek Offers Advice to the Canadian Space Industry on Our Latest Postponed Space Plan

         By Chuck Black

Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada (ISED) has gone on record to address the rumours that an expected report from the Federal Space Advisory Board will not be ready in time to meet the government's self-imposed June 2017 deadline for publication.

As outlined in a June 22nd, 2017 e-mail from ISED media relations officer Hans Parmar, the report is to be updated to become more "action oriented."


Parmar provided no estimate of when the final report would be completed and refused to answer a question on whether it will be ready for September, when an expected Federal Cabinet shuffle could potentially plop a new Liberal face into Innovation Minister Navdeep Bains' current portfolio and cause the entire process to reset to zero. 

According to Parmar:
Based on feedback from the Space Advisory Board consultations, the government heard that Canada needs a long term approach that recognizes the strategic importance of space and that is action-oriented.

The Government of Canada continues to work on a space strategy that will support growth in the sector and leverage the benefits of space for all Canadians.

This strategy will set a new approach for space – setting clear directions, promoting partnerships and defining a future role for Canada in space. This comprehensive approach will help to coordinate policies and programs across government, including Canada’s Defence Policy and the Innovation and Skills Plan.
An "action oriented" Boeing F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet at the 2014 Farnborough International Air Show. There's nothing like a quick reminder of the great many political fish still to fry on the Innovation Minister's plate and the June 22nd, 2017 CTV News Post, "Boeing plays down Bombardier dispute, still hopes to sell fighter jets to Canada," notes two in a single post. Another, as outlined in the April 17th, 2017 post, "'Massive' Review of Federal Science Funding Finally Released; Will Likely Soon 'Drop Down the Memory Hole'" also directly affects science funding and the Liberal "Innovation Agenda." A fourth crisis, the looming purchase of Canadian satellite communications provider Norsat by either an American hedge fund or a Chinese conglomerate is playing out this week in Vancouver. Photo c/o AP/Sang Tan.

While expected for some time, the delay first surfaced in the June 21st, 2017 SpaceQ post, "New Canadian Space Strategy Delayed," which didn't reference any primary sources, but did give two potential reasons for the delay.
  • First of all, "the Space Advisory Board was not announced until mid-April providing it little time to consult with stakeholders and to formulate a report for the government to analyze," which is true enough as things go, but could also indicate incompetence, since government reviews normally take far longer than the two and a half months the ruling Liberal party allotted. This would have been known in advance. 
    Nice, but not "action oriented." Graphic c/o CSA.
  • Secondly, "there was a greater response to the consultation process than was expected including numerous written submissions. What this all means is the government has a lot of input to digest." It could also indicate a lack of understanding of the complexity of the issues facing our space industry.
There is also the possibility that the Space Advisory Board was convened to give the space industry the perception of participation in the process for when the Liberal party rolled out another generic, but mostly useless document in the same vein as the February 7th, 2014 Conservative Party Canada's Space Policy Framework.

A potential template for this new paper might even have been one of the policy documents which derived from the "1st Canadian Space Policy Symposium," focused on "Aligning Canada’s Future in Space with Canada’s Innovation Agenda," an agenda chock full of Liberal party buzzwords, which was held in Ottawa on November 8th, 2016.

As outlined in the November 13th, 2016 post, "Generalists, Data Miners, Lotteries, Comedy, Open Access and the Future of Science in Canada," the Commercial Space blog mentioned the event in passing, as part of the coverage of the larger 2016 Canadian Science Policy Conference, but was refused admission to the space policy symposium.

Talk, but no action. Graphic c/o CSCA.
It's interesting to note that many of the people currently active in the Space Advisory Board did attend the 2016 Space Policy Symposium.

If the outline of the current postponed space policy document was known last November, then a three month turn around time becomes understandable, since the Space Advisory Board would be expected to simply "glad handle" and build consensus for an already existing plan, but wouldn't need to develop anything new.

In retrospect, it seems as if participants in both the 2016 Space Policy Conference and the more recent round table discussions of the Space Advisory Board were sold a bill of goods by the organizers, since people who might possibly disagree with the anticipated policy document were refused admission to the Space Policy Forum, and a reasonable discussion of options relating to Canada's Future in space, including contrary viewpoints, doesn't seem to have occurred until the round tables were held.

Now that expectations have been raised, the government will need to spend some time either distilling the round table discussions into a real policy document, or they'll need to find a way to bury the report.


Of course, this isn't the first time that a Federal minister has offered up a plan to "revitalize" the Canadian space industry and our space agency. 

Back in 2008, then Conservative Industry Minister Jim Prentice, offered up the following mandate to the then new Canadian Space Agency (CSA) president Steve MacLean:
Jim Prentice. Photo c/o Wikipedia
I have given Steve a mandate to make sweeping changes at the CSA. 
As we stand at this crossroads, he will revitalize the Agency. He will restore its ability to punch above its weight in an international quest. He will develop Canada’s capacity for a new era of prestige and achievement.  
And to that end, as one of Steve MacLean’s first acts as new President, the CSA will begin consultations with stakeholders that will lead to a new Long-Term Space Plan. 
I expect this plan – the fourth in the series – to be as influential for our generation of exploration and development as any plan that Canada has produced for charting our future in space. 
That’s a tall order. I know that Steve is capable of bringing together the stakeholders. Time is of the essence, and I look forward to the plan in the coming months. 
But after the 2008 election, Prentice moved on to became Minister of Environment. MacLean wrote his report, but it was never released to the public and, as outlined in the May 8th, 2017 post, "Steve MacLean's 2010 Long-Term Space Plan Surfaces, CSA Clarifies its Communications Policy & California's Rocket Tax," that document eventually became marketing material for the Gordon Group, an Ottawa based marketing company which assisted with its creation.

During the 2016 election, and as outlined in the October 13, 2015 post on "Part 2 of "Abandoning the Emerson Aerospace Review?," both the Liberals and the NDP wanted a review of the 2012 David Emerson led Aerospace Review (perhaps even culminating in a new "long-term space plan"), but once the Liberals gained power in October 2015, that review fell by the wayside.

The current Liberal government mostly supports the Emerson Review, but would prefer the electorate forgot that Emerson happened under Conservative Prime Minister Stephen Harper and currently enjoys wide bipartisan support.

As Mr. Scott, the Chief Engineer in the 1967 Star Trek episode, "Friday's Child," once said, "Fool me once, Shame on you. Fool me twice, Shame on me."
Chuck Black.
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Chuck Black is the editor of the Commercial Space blog.

Monday, June 19, 2017

Norsat to Reconvene AGM on June 22nd to Discuss US and Chinese Purchase Offers

          By Chuck Black

Innovation Minister Navdeep Bains, Transport Minister Marc Garneau, International Trade Minister François-Philippe Champagne and Steven MacKinnon, the parliamentary secretary to the Minister of Public Services and Procurement will be joining a large delegation of Canadian companies attending the 2017 International Paris Air Show this week, where they are expected to focus on promoting the "aero" component of Canada's aerospace industry to an international audience.


Which is sort of a political shame, because back in Canada, both Chinese based Shenzhen, China based Hytera Communications and Atlanta based Privet Fund Management are plotting their next move to acquire Richmond, BC based Norsat International, which sells custom satellite communications capabilities to Canadian and US civilian and military organizations for "remote and challenging applications."

A showdown is expected this week, whether or not the appropriate Canadian politicians weigh in on the matter.

As outlined in the June 17th, 2017 Norsat press release, "Reconvened Annual General Meeting," Norsat shareholders will have the opportunity to discuss both the Hytera & Privet purchase offers when Norsat AGM reconvenes its annual general meeting on Thursday, June 22nd, 2017.

US based Privet currently seems to possess the advantage. As outlined in the June 19th, 2017 Privet press release, "Privet Fund Management LLC Announces Intention To Vote Against Arrangement Resolution Between Norsat International and Hytera Communications Co," Privet already owns 17.6% of the common shares of Norsat, and intends to vote against the Hytera offer.

But they seem to be opposed by the Norsat board. As outlined in the Privet press release:
"We find it incredible that the Norsat Board believes an identical offer from Hytera represents the best interests of all stakeholders in light of the mounting political scrutiny and regulatory uncertainty surrounding a transaction with Hytera," said Ryan Levenson, managing member of Privet. 
"Even more egregious, in exchange for merely matching Privet's offer, the Norsat Board gifted an additional US$500,000 to Hytera in the form of an increased termination fee, making it even more expensive for a third party to deliver a topping bid. The increased fee brings the total amount of incremental termination fees Norsat has bestowed upon Hytera for just keeping up with Privet to US$1 Million – or US$0.17 per share."
"That is money that could have gone directly to shareholders, rather than used to ensure that Hytera remains in an advantageous negotiating position," added Mr. Levenson.

Privat also seems to enjoy the support of at least one US government organization.

As outlined in the June 12th, 2017 Globe and Mail post, "US rebukes Canada over Chinese takeover of Norsat," the US-China Economic and Security Review Commission,  a US congressional commission, warned last week that "the Trudeau government’s decision to green-light a Chinese takeover of a Canadian high-tech firm that sells satellite-communication systems to the American military jeopardizes US national security" and urged the Pentagon to “immediately review” its dealings with Norsat.

But this doesn't mean that the US acquisition of Norsat is a sure thing.

Certainly if the Liberal party were up to date on this particular sale, they could have handled it with a little more finesse. As outlined in the June 12th, 2017 post, "US and Chinese Firms Joust Over Norsat as Opposition Criticizes Liberals for Allowing Sale," they were initially caught unaware of the importance of the company to both Canadian and US national security.

The final sale, as of now, could certainly go either way. And while it would certainly be considered more appropriate to our security requirements if Canadian defence needs were included in the calculation of the final sale of Norsat to any foreign entity, that might not happen.

After all, our Innovation Minister and his colleagues will instead be in Paris, where they will focus on issues other than our national defence and the role of our space industry in its maintenance.

Perhaps Minister Bains will even get in a little sight-seeing before returning to Canada and getting back to work. Paris is a great tourist attraction.

Nuff said...
Chuck Black.
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Chuck Black is the editor of the Commercial Space blog.

Insurance Underwriters in Space at the 2017 World Space Risk Forum

          By Brian Orlotti

The 2017 World Space Risk Forum (WSRF), first organized in 2010 "as a forum for the global space community to better understand space risks, new technologies and innovations with the goal to find ways to best mitigate risks, allowing space to become a safer place to do business," wound up its most recent one day event in London, UK last week with a consensus that the space industry is at a tipping point.

As outlined by SpaceIntelReport editor Peter B. de Selding, "2016 to be historic low for space insurance premiums w/ grounding of SpaceX. But it'll be a profitable yr for underwriters." Graphic c/o Twitter

As outlined in the June 15th, 2017 SpaceWatch Middle East post, "World Space Risk Forum 2017 in London – Space: A Risky Business," the industry has entered an era set to be dominated by the small satellites and low cost launch vehicles.To compete, traditional operators, manufacturers and launch vehicle providers will need to rethink their business models.

A second area of concern was the development of solutions for identifying what's in orbit, where its located, who owns it and how to keep everything from colliding.

Presentations included:
  • Craig Clarke, the chief executive officer of UK based Clyde Space, who highlighted just how far small satellite capabilities have come. According to Clarke, high resolution imaging, SAR, communications and Earth observation capabilities can all be offered on a small 400kg platform and the cubesat sector is very much driving the continued growth of the overall market. As well, the lower cost of download of data has led to a change in the type of customer using the service and the amount of risk which they are willing to accept.
Sometimes its hard to compare a small-sat to a large one without understanding their orbits and capabilities. A good place to start is the Q2 2015 Intelesat Insider post, "LEO and GEO Constellations: 7 Elements to Consider Before Joining the Debate," which defines the key points of comparison as being latency, coverage, efficiency, complexity, cost, frequency spectrum, time to market and adaptability. Graphic c/o Intelesat
  • Antonio Abad, the chief technology office of Madrid based Hispasat, who stressed that the satellite industry needs to be competitive with terrestrial solutions in order to maintain its market. The satellite industry, though adept at broadcasting, needs to be better at point-to-point services and needs to look again at the design of its satellites in order to remain relevant.
  • Peter Elson, the "global head of space" and chief operations officer at London, UK based insurance broker JLT Specialty, who emphasized that what had previously worked for insurers and brokers in the past would no longer work due to the amount of innovation and disruption currently occurring within the industry.
  • Mike Lawton, the founder and chief executive officer of UK based Oxford Space Systems, who explained how NewSpace companies are far more accepting of high risk activities because they are composed of small, "generalist" teams involved in multiple roles and intent on "disruption," not simply "innovation." Traditional players, such as space agencies and aerospace contractors, tend to be risk averse, slower to react to challenges and focused on incremental improvements, rather than disruption.
SpaceX and Blue Origin aren't just competing against each other. As outlined in the June 19th, 2017 Inverse post, "SpaceX and Blue Origin are Set to Solve America's Rocket Problem," they're also competing against far more expensive American rocket manufacturers and 1970's designed Russian rocket engines. Photo's c/o Business Insider
  • Jonathan Hofeller, the vice-president of commercial sales for Hawthorne, CA based SpaceX, who recounted how the industry had originally laughed at Elon Musk’s vision of reusable rockets. The company has since seen a "paradigm shift" in terms of customers interested in this area and Musk's vision is now becoming the "new normal."
In addition to their conferences, the WSRF provides a platform for continual dialogue and the website provides resources to better understand the space risks industry. 

Partners include Euroconsult, Arianespace, Boeing, Space Systems Loral (SSL), SpaceX, Thales Athena and a variety of insurance brokers. 
Brian Orlotti.
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Brian Orlotti is a regular contributor to the Commercial Space blog.

Thursday, June 15, 2017

Telesat Supports Defence Budget But Inuvik Left Out & Teledyne Dalsa Employee Convicted of Selling Satellite Data to China

          By Henry Stewart

For the week of June 12th, 2017, here are a few of the stories we're tracking in the Commercial Space blog:

Has this man got a deal for Telesat? Defence Minister Harjit S. Sajjan in Parliament earlier this year. Photo c/o CTV News.

  • Ottawa, Ontario based Telesat seems to have responded with enthusiasm after learning the details of Canada’s new defense policy last week, especially the parts which included new Federal funding for arctic military satellites.
As outlined in the June 13th, 2017 Space Intel Report post, "Telesat sees possible LEO partnership in Canada’s new defense posture," just hours after the document was published, "Ottawa-based Telesat said the Canadian government’s willingness to strike public-private partnerships, (is) a move that gives 'an unprecedented opportunity for the Canadian defense industry, including the space sector, to effectively support the military.'"
According to the article, "The biggest near-term potential benefit to Telesat would appear to be having Canada’s armed forces as an anchor tenant for Telesat’s proposed global constellation of broadband satellites in low Earth orbit. The constellation, for which two prototype satellites are scheduled for launch this year, would appear to fill the requirement of the new Canadian defense policy for all-Arctic coverage."
As outlined in the June 9th, 2017 post, "Liberals Waive Review of Chinese Norsat Purchase, but also Pledge Billions in Defence Spending & Revise Satellite Licencing Regs," the Minister has proposed up to $62Bln CDN worth of new defence contracts, which would include space-based telecommunications in the Arctic, plus various space based intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and situational awareness initiatives plus perhaps even "a counterspace option."
For more on Telesat's proposed global constellation, check out the May 8th, 2017 Space Intel post, "Telesat: LEO gives more user bandwidth than GEO HTS." 
For more on Telesat's two prototype satellites, check out the February 29th, 2016 post, "Telesat makes Agreements, MDA likes the USA, COM DEV not Forgotten & NSERC has Needs."
Tom Zubko, the president of New North Networks, is concerned Inuvik's image as a good place to invest in satellite related technology could face a setback if the federal government does not move faster to approve transmission licenses for two clients who built six new satellite dishes in Inuvik last year. Photo c/o David Thurton/CBC.

  • Of course, while it's hypothetically possible that the new military spending promised by Minister Sajjan is on the way and will indeed show up sometime after the next election, Canada's north will continue for face telecommunication challenges. 
As outlined in the June 9th, 2017 CBC News post, "Federal delays could smother Inuvik's fledgling satellite industry, says telecom prez," six new satellite antennae are ready for service in Inuvik,a town in the Northwest Territories which acts as the administrative centre for the Inuvik Region, but delays in licensing could kill the project.
The article quoted Tom Zubko, the president of Inuvik based New North Networks, who stated that two clients (Norway based Kongsberg Satellite Services and San Francisco, CA based Planet Labs, also known as Planet) have spent upward of $10Mln CDN to install the antennas, but are unable to use them, because of the "slow progress on a federal licence to transmit data" and are thinking of abandoning the project.
Zubko said Inuvik has great potential for this kind of high-tech investment, but only if proponents can get their projects licensed in a timely matter. According to the article, "New North Networks was contracted to build the basic infrastructure for the equipment, which the two satellite companies then installed. Zubko said his company also has a contract to provide care and maintenance of the new equipment."
As outlined most recently in the July 18th, 2016 post, "Arctic Satellites Should Serve Northerners According to Nunatsiaq Online," the 2016 cancellation of the dual civilian and military use Polar Communications and Weather mission (PCW) in favor of a Canadian military based program without any weather component or assured civilian access to communications, has caused confusion in the North as the civilian population scrambles for an alternative. 
Teledyne Dalsa HQ in Waterloo, Ontario. Photo c/o Teledyne Dalsa.

  • In contrast to the recent public and Parliamentary concerns expressed over attempts the proposed sale of Vancouver, BC based Norsat International Inc. to Shenzhen, China based Hytera Communications, there has been little attempt to assess or comment on the recent situation at Waterloo, Ontario based Teledyne Dalsa, where two employees were arrested in February 2017 on charges of stealing sensitive satellite imaging technology from their company and selling the information to China.
As outlined in the June 12th, 2017 The Record post, "Waterloo tech theft case ends with $50,000 fine," Arthur Pang and Binqiao Li faced a raft of charges, including theft, fraud, conspiracy to commit fraud and possession of property obtained by crime. 
As outlined in the article, charges were the result of a two-year investigation by the RCMP's organized crime unit, which started after a complaint from the Waterloo company in early 2014. 
Both Pang and Binqiao were fired after being charged and Pang eventually pleaded guilty only to breaking Canada's export and customs laws and was fined $50,000 CDN. 
According to the article, "the other 18 charges he faced were dropped by the prosecution. All charges against Li were withdrawn." As outlined in court documents, Pang admitted to competing against his own employer on bids for space projects in China.
For more, check out our upcoming stories in the Commercial Space blog.
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Henry Stewart is the pseudonym of a Toronto based aerospace writer.

Part 14: 150 Years of Canadian Aerospace History

Challengers Destruction, the Hubble Space Telescope, a New HQ for the CSA, Spar Flounders

& Orbital Sciences Buys MDA




Challenger's destruction January 28th, 1986. Photo c/o NYT.
         By Robert Godwin
Canada's aerospace raison d'ĂȘtre has always derived from its immense size, its location in the far north as a vast, barely-tracked wilderness of incalculable resources and the logical requirements relating to defence, communications, utilization and exploration which naturally follow from its size and location.

In 1982 Phil Lapp had again tried to spark a cross-Atlantic partnership for Canadian space research with his friend Geoffrey Pardoe in England. SPAR had signed an agreement to work with the European Space Agency (ESA) on a large observation satellite named L-Sat. This agreement would ultimately start discussions which might bring Britain into the next generation of synthetic aperture (SAR) equipped satellites. Unfortunately this was not going to be an easy marriage. Long before the program could bear fruit British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher pulled out of the agreement.

Problems were soon compounded by the tragic destruction of the space shuttle Challenger in early 1986. As well as the devastating loss of life, many extremely expensive long-term projects were put into a holding pattern while NASA tried to determine the source of the catastrophic failure of its most advanced and expensive space system.


Canada's next astronaut, Dr Robert Bondar, would see her mission pushed back by years. The hugely expensive Hubble Space Telescope, which used STEM-equipped solar panels, was delayed because it was designed to be launched from the shuttle cargo bay. For two and a half years NASA was grounded. This delay was put to good use, not only to make the shuttle system safer, but it also gave the entire Canadian aerospace community — government, industry and academia — a chance to really explore what was needed next to cement the country's future in space.

A national space agency, just like the one which Phil Lapp and John Chapman had suggested more than two decades earlier, was finally created. A report had been issued just a few months before the Challenger accident urging the formation of the new agency, but not everyone was happy with the idea of the government being "at the wheel" of every space project. However, since almost all of the funding came from Ottawa, it seems the plan was inevitable once so many projects were placed on hold.

Almost immediately political friction took hold when Ottawa and Montreal both lobbied to be the host city for the new space agency.  The science community urged that the new agency be set up with "field centres" following the same model as NASA. This would allow places like Churchill Falls to continue to operate and would spread the work around the country. But by May of 1989 the site had been chosen by the Mulroney government for the new agency to be built in St Hubert Quebec.

Dusk falling outside the main rotunda of the John H. Chapman Space Centre in St. Hubert Quebec. The CSA headquarters is named in honour of John Herbert Chapman, a pioneer of the Canadian space program and author of the 1967 report on "Upper Atmosphere and Space Programs in Canada," also known as the "Chapman Report," which has served to guide Canadian space activities ever since. Photo c/o CSA.

In the meantime SPAR's Canadarm would return to flight and SPAR began to pursue a contract to build the next generation of robotic arms for the proposed space station.

As early as 1959 NASA, the US Army and the USAF had been issuing contracts for space station studies. All the way through to the early 1980s there had never been much thought given to international cooperation on the many dozens of proposals. It would not be until the Reagan era that the opportunity would arrive for other nations like Canada to get involved, and it was with the collapse of the Soviet Union's grip on its client states, beginning in Poland in 1989, that it was decided by the US government that cooperation with the Soviets might be a way of keeping the peace.

The end of 1988 saw the space shuttle return to flight and one of the most important missions which had been sitting in storage was the giant Hubble Space Telescope. It would be successfully launched from the shuttle cargo bay in April 1990, but almost immediately the operators of the telescope knew that there was something wrong.

A tiny flaw in the main mirror had rendered the multi-billion dollar instrument myopic. The only way to save the whole program was to send another shuttle to catch the massive telescope by using the Canadarm to pull it into the shuttle's protective bay and make an in-flight repair. It would be the most audacious space repair mission since the Skylab debacle of the early 1970s. It would have been impossible without the Canadarm.


But a year before the repair could take place Dr Roberta Bondar became Canada's first female astronaut. Bondar would be a payload specialist and participated in what was known as the "International Microgravity Laboratory."

An overachiever in the life sciences, Bondar and her crewmates completed "more than 100%" of their flight objectives and were able to work for a day longer than originally planned. Crystals, cells and plants all exposed to micro-gravity were returned to Earth, including proteins grown in space.

Bondar would not fly again, but in November Steve MacLean would follow her into orbit participating in what would be one of the most successful years for the shuttle program, with eight flights in less than 12 months. MacLean's flight also included a raft of biology experiments but also included the CANEX 2 experiment package. One of the experiments on liquid metal diffusion originated at Queen's University in Kingston.

Overview of the Canadian Experiments (CANEX-2). Screen shot c/o NASA.

Just as the Canadarm was performing its most famous task and saving the Hubble Space Telescope things started to slide sideways for SPAR. In 1987 SPAR had become prime contractor for Canada's involvement in the International Space Station and MacDonald Dettwiler (MDA) had been brought on board to handle the software. That same year was also when SPAR and MDA combined forces on the new SAR satellite, RADARSAT.

In July 1992 the shareholders of MDA rejected a $50M buy-out offer from SPAR. In 1993 a new management structure at SPAR began to cause oversight issues. The company had grown into a behemoth with aerospace work only accounting for 41% of the revenues. The failed takeover of MDA allowed for another suitor, Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) of Dulles, to make a better offer just a few years later. In September 1995 MDA became a wholly owned subsidiary of Orbital.

This was the beginning of the end for SPAR. Canada's largest space contractor was on the way out. 
Robert Godwin.
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Robert Godwin is the owner and founder of Apogee Space Books, the Space Curator at the Canadian Air & Space Museum and an American Astronautical Society History Committee Member.
He has written or edited over 100 books including the award winning series "The NASA Mission Reports" and appeared on dozens of radio and television programs in Canada, the USA and England as an expert not only on space exploration but also on music.  
His books have been discussed on CNN, the CBC, the BBC and CBS 60 Minutes. He produced the first ever virtual reality panoramas of the Apollo lunar surface photography and the first multi-camera angle movie of the Apollo 11 moonwalk. His latest book was written with the late Frederick I Ordway III and is called "2001 The Heritage and Legacy of the Space Odyssey" about the history of spaceflight at the movies.
Last Week, "'Spar's Canadarm, George Klein, Ernie Groskopfs and Working Astronauts plus the Mulrony Gov't Divests its Aerospace Assets," in part thirteen of "150 Years of Canadian Aerospace History."

Next Week, "RADARSAT, Spar's Destruction and More," as part fifteen of "150 Years of Canadian Aerospace History" continues.

On sale now, at Apogee Books.

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